Compelling, credible, recent, direct impact data
Time to read
1 minute
Read so far

Impact of a community-based comprehensive primary healthcare programme on infant and child mortality in Bolivia


Perry, H. B., D. S. Shanklin, et al. (2003). "Impact of a community-based comprehensive primary healthcare programme on infant and child mortality in Bolivia." Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 21(4): 383-395.

OBJECTIVE: Community-based comprehensive primary healthcare programmes are a widely-promoted strategy for improving child survival in less-developed countries, but limited documentation exists concerning their effectiveness in actually reducing child mortality. This study examined the impact of a community-based comprehensive primary healthcare programme on child survival in Bolivia.

METHODS: Mortality rates from two intervention areas where Andean Rural Health Care (ARHC) had been conducting child-survival activities for 5-9 years were compared with those from two geographically-adjacent comparison areas that lacked such activities and that were virtually identical to the intervention areas in socioeconomic characteristics. Vital events were registered at the time of regular visit to all homes. In the comparison areas, limited services were available which reached only a small percentage of the population, while in the intervention areas, prenatal care, immunizations, growth monitoring, nutrition rehabilitation, and acute curative services were readily available to the entire population, in 1992-1993, the annual rates of mortality of children, aged less than five years, were 205.5 per 1,000 and 98.5 per 1,000 in the comparison and intervention areas respectively.

RESULTS: The absolute difference in mortality of 107.0 deaths per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.7-141.3 per 1,000) represented 52.1% (95% CI, 35.2-68.8%) lower mortality of children aged less than five years in the intervention areas compared to the control communities,

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the provision of community-based, integrated health services can significantly improve child survival in poor countries. Better-designed and larger field trials of community-based comprehensive primary healthcare programmes in multiple regions of the world are needed to provide a stronger scientific basis for developing this approach further in developing countries.

Add new comment

Your Priorities, Opportunities and Challenges? Complete the SURVEY

Why the focus on direct impact data?

A common challenge from policy makers, funders, community members, people directly experiencing development issues, and governments is: Demonstrate your Impact. Prove that what you are doing works. The high quality, highly credible data presented on the cards below is designed to help you answer that question for your social change, behaviour change, community engagement, communication and media for development, strategy formulation, policy engagement and funding initiatives. At this link filter the research data to your specific interests and priorities

Why a playing cards design?

There is a physical pack of cards with this data (to get a copy please request through the comment form for any card). The card approach allows for easy identification and selection of relevant direct impact data in any context. For example if talking with a donor and you need to identify proof of impact say "take a look at the 7 of Hearts". Quick access can be provided to high-quality data for many areas of your work – funding, planning, policy, advocacy, community dialogue, training, partner engagement, and more. A card deck is also engaging, easy to use and share, a conversation starter, and a resource - and they are fun and different. So we kept that design for the online images as it can serve similar purposes. 

What are the criteria for inclusion?

The impact data presented meets the following high standard for inclusion criteria:

  • Positive change or trend in a priority development issue;
  • Social change or behaviour change strategy or process;
  • Randomized Control Trial or Systematic Review methodology;
  • High quality peer review journal published;
  • Numeric impact data point
  • Published since 2010.