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Behaviour-Centred Design - Toilets Improved by 10%


Strategy researched

Behaviour-centred design and group meetings

Impact achieved

Plots in the intervention group had significantly better quality toilets compared with those in the control group across all 4 dimensions of quality improvement, with an approximate 10% increase in the intervention group in each.

Country of study


Research methodology

Residential plot RCT


The Lancet Planetary Health; 2019

Journal paper title and link

Effect of a behaviour change intervention on the quality of peri-urban sanitation in Lusaka, Zambia: a randomised controlled trial

Excerpt from Abstract

"The intervention was associated with improvements in the prevalence of cleaning rotas (relative risk 1·16, 95% CI 1·05–1·30; p=0·0011), inside locks (1·34, 1·10–1·64; p=0·00081), outside locks (1·27, 1·06–1·52; p=0·0028), and toilets with simple covers or water seals (1·25, 1·04–1·50; p=0·0063)."

Summary at this link


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The impact data presented meets the following high standard for inclusion criteria:

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  • Numeric impact data point
  • Published since 2010.